Archive for November, 2012
A REQUEST TO ALL VISITORS:
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INTERNSHIP REPORT FORMAT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FORM (ONLY COMSIANS):
Here is the Internship Report Format and Students Performance Evaluation Form, as required by the students of COMSATS. The documents contain full information about what the Internship Report Format should be and Students’ Performance Evaluation Form, which has to be duly filled by your employer, where you have done your internship. Just click to have them downloaded to your computer:
Internship Report Format (Microsoft Word Document)
Internship Evaluation Form (Microsoft Word Document)
PEST ANALYSES OF COUNTRIES:
The following are the PEST Analyses of 7 countries as submitted by different groups from different sections.
WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN PAKISTAN:
M. Adeel Khan
CORPORATE FINANCE BOOKS:
1. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGERIAL FINANCE
2. FUNDAMENTALS OF CORPORATE FINANCE
MUHAMMAD AZEEM RAJA
3. CORPORATE FINANCE:
M. Adeel Khan
THE PROTOCOLS THE MEETINGS OF ELDERS OF ZION:
MR. FAIEZ SEYAL OFFICIAL WEBSITE:
FOR MORE DOCUMENTS TO SHARE, EMAIL THEM TO firstname.lastname@example.org.
Author: Awais Ahmad (email@example.com)
An Annuity is a series of equal payments made at fixed intervals for a specified number of periods. These equal payments are denoted by the PMT and can occur at either the beginning or the end of each period. Future and Present Values of Annuity: Future Value of an Annuity can be calculated, where a series of equal payments are made at a fixed intervals for a specific number of periods. The principle applied here is just like Compounding. However, method of calculating Future Value of Annuity differs in Ordinary Annuity and Annuity Due. Similarly, Present Value of an Annuity can also be calculated by using the principle of Discounting, but the method of calculating Present Value of Annuity differs in Ordinary Annuity and Annuity Due. Types of Annuity: Annuity has following types depending on the period of payment.
1. Ordinary/Deferred Annuity:
If the payments of Annuity occur at the end of each period, it is called Ordinary or Deferred Annuity.
Future Value of Ordinary Annuity:
If equal payments PMT is made at the end of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Future Value of Annuity (FVa or FVAn) can be calculated as:
Present Value of Ordinary Annuity:
If equal payment PMT is made at the end of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Present Value of Annuity PVAn can be calculated as:
2. Annuity Due
If the payments of Annuity occur at the beginning of each period, such Annuity is called Annuity Due.
Future Value of Annuity Due:
If equal payment PMT is made at the beginning of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Future Value of such Annuity FVAn can be calculated as:
The only difference between Future Value of Deferred Annuity and Annuity Due is that every term of Future Value of Annuity Due is compounded for one extra period, reflecting the fact that each payment for an Annuity Due occurs one period earlier than Ordinary Annuity.
Present Value of Annuity Due:
The only difference between Present Value of Deferred Annuity and Annuity Due is that every term of Present Value of Annuity Due is discounted for one extra period, reflecting the fact that each payment for an Annuity Due occurs one period earlier than for Ordinary Annuity.
Some Annuities go on indefinitely, or perpetually, and are called Perpetuities. The Present Value of such Annuities is simple to calculate.
Financial Management – Theory & Practice by Eugene F. Brigham & Michael C. Ehrhardt
Notes on Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management
Lectures of Respectable Teahers