Posts Tagged 2012

ANNUITY AND ITS TYPES


Author: Awais Ahmad (comsian027@gmail.com)

Annuity:

An Annuity is a series of equal payments made at fixed intervals for a specified number of periods. These equal payments are denoted by the PMT and can occur at either the beginning or the end of each period. Future and Present Values of Annuity: Future Value of an Annuity can be calculated, where a series of equal payments are made at a fixed intervals for a specific number of periods. The principle applied here is just like Compounding. However, method of calculating Future Value of Annuity differs in Ordinary Annuity and Annuity Due. Similarly, Present Value of an Annuity can also be calculated by using the principle of Discounting, but the method of calculating Present Value of Annuity differs in Ordinary Annuity and Annuity Due. Types of Annuity: Annuity has following types depending on the period of payment.

1. Ordinary/Deferred Annuity:

If the payments of Annuity occur at the end of each period, it is called Ordinary or Deferred Annuity.

Future Value of Ordinary Annuity:

If equal payments PMT is made at the end of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Future Value of Annuity (FVa or FVAn) can be calculated as:

Present Value of Ordinary Annuity:

If equal payment PMT is made at the end of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Present Value of Annuity PVAn can be calculated as:

2.      Annuity Due

If the payments of Annuity occur at the beginning of each period, such Annuity is called Annuity Due.

Future Value of Annuity Due:

If equal payment PMT is made at the beginning of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Future Value of such Annuity FVAn can be calculated as:

The only difference between Future Value of Deferred Annuity and Annuity Due is that every term of Future Value of Annuity Due is compounded for one extra period, reflecting the fact that each payment for an Annuity Due occurs one period earlier than Ordinary Annuity.

Present Value of Annuity Due:

If equal PMT is made at the beginning of n periods, providing a saving of i, then Present Value of such Annuity PVAn can be calculated as:

The only difference between Present Value of Deferred Annuity and Annuity Due is that every term of Present Value of Annuity Due is discounted for one extra period, reflecting the fact that each payment for an Annuity Due occurs one period earlier than for Ordinary Annuity.

3.      Perpetuity

Some Annuities go on indefinitely, or perpetually, and are called Perpetuities. The Present Value of such Annuities is simple to calculate.

REFERENCES:

Financial Management – Theory & Practice by Eugene F. Brigham & Michael C. Ehrhardt

Notes on Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management

Lectures of Respectable Teahers

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ALL NEWSPAPER JOB ADS


IMPORTANT NOTE:

THE ADS DISPLAYED ON THIS BLOG PAGE ARE TAKEN FROM MORE THAN 10 JOB WEBSITES , SO THE DUPLICATION OF ANY OF THE ADS MIGHT BE POSSIBLE…..!

JOBS AS ON NOVEMBER 04, 2012 (04-11-2012):

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Google Apps: Internet Explorer 8 support ends soon


The Google Apps team just announced that support for Microsoft’s Internet Explorer 8 web browser will end on November 15, 2012. This falls in line with last year’s announcement that the service will only support the latest version of a web browser and the prior version. When a new major version gets released, support for the third oldest version is discontinued.

Microsoft will release Internet Explorer 10 on October 26, the day the Windows 8 operating system is launched to the public. The new major version and Internet Explorer 9 are from that moment on supported by Google Apps, while Internet Explorer 8 support is dropped.

This has implications for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 users, as Microsoft has not made available Internet Explorer upgrades for their systems. While that does not mean that these users can’t access Google Apps at all, they will receive a message recommending to upgrade the browser. Since XP users do not have upgrade options available to them, they are in a predicament.

As we announced last year, we support the latest version of Google Chrome (which automatically updates whenever it detects that a new version of the browser is available) as well as the current and prior major release of Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari on a rolling basis. Each time a new version of one of these browsers is released, we begin supporting the update and stop supporting the third-oldest version.

Internet Explorer 10 launches on 10/26/2012, and as a result, we will discontinue support for Internet Explorer 8 shortly afterwards, on 11/15/2012. After this date users accessing Google Apps services using Internet Explorer 8 will see a message recommending that they upgrade their browser.

Organizations and individual users relying on Internet Explorer 8 may install the Google Chrome Frame plugin in the web browser to overcome the issue.

Internet Explorer 8 is not the only browser that Google Apps is not supporting officially. Google is for instance not supporting any version of the Opera web browser, Internet Explorer 6 or 7, Firefox 3.6, Firefox 4, or any version of the browser lower than Firefox 14 with the exception of the Firefox ESR release.

Users running unsupported browser versions may experience issues when using Google Apps. Presentations in Google Docs for instance do not display properly in Firefox 3.6, and Gmail’s new look does not work at all in unsupported web browsers.

The move may provide Google with yet another option to market the company’s own web browser Google Chrome to Internet Explorer users.

Reference Link: http://www.ghacks.net/2012/09/15/google-apps-internet-explorer-8-support-ends-soon/?_m=3n%2e0038%2e644%2evh0ao03kwj%2ens1

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COMSATS MBA13C’S BLOG REVIEW AND SUMMARY 2011


Click here to see complete report and performance of this blog during 2011.

https://mba13c.wordpress.com/2011/annual-report/

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